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The History of the Internet

Among the creations that have revolutionized the lives of human beings, without a doubt, the Internet must be mentioned. This has changed the way we relate to each other and carry out different activities, forever changing the way we communicate and interact. If you want to know the history of the Internet, how it has evolved over the years and who its main architects were, you can find it below.

The Internet (or internet) is the global system of interconnected  computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices. via wiki

Internet history

The internet was invented in the late 1960s in the context of the Cold War to guarantee communications in the event of a nuclear threat. The Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) was responsible for this creation, belonging to the North American Department of Defense.

The investigations lasted several years, their main purpose was to establish a communications network to transmit documents and data between systems. In 1965, a computer in the State of Massachusetts manages to connect with another located in California through packet switching protocols, beginning the interconnection of computers.

Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET)

Arpanet first map in the history of the internet

The Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) was the computer network created for the United States Department of Defense. Its main objective was to use it to communicate the different academic and state institutions of the country.

On October 29, 1969, the first message is transmitted through the ARPANET, less than a month later, on November 21, the first link between the University of California and the Stanford Research Institute takes place.

In December 1969 the network already had 4 nodes: connecting the University of Utah and the University of California at Santa Barbara. In 1970 the network was extended to the East Coast of the USA when the company Bolt, Beranek and Newman joined. In 1971 it increased to 24 linked computers, mainly from academic and research centers. By 1981 they already had 213 connected computers, reaching 500 connected computers by 1983.

Although the development and use of ARPANET was initially military, research centers and academics around the world quickly saw the new possibilities for information exchange that this technology offered.

TCP/IP protocol

With the growth of the network, compatibility problems began to appear due to the fact that computers of different models were connected. The solution to these problems came from a set of protocols called TCP/ IP. These were developed and tested in 1972 by the Department of Defense of the United States, the execution was carried out on ARPANET.

In the 1970s, Robert Kahn and Vinton Cerf developed this set of protocols for the transmission of information between connected networks. In these investigations, the contributions of Larry Roberts should also be highlighted. It was not until 1983 that this set of protocols was adopted in the ARPANET, as a result the Internet begins to be defined. These advances helped speed up the spread of networking and resolved many of the compatibility issues between connected computers.

world Wide Web

The World Wide Web was developed between 1989 and 1990 by researcher Tim Berners-Lee with the help of Robert Cailliau, as part of his work at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland; It was published in the year 1991.

By 1990 Berners-Lee had developed all the tools that allowed internationalizing and standardizing the use of the web:

  • Hypertext Markup Language (HTML): It is the standard used for the elaboration and interpretation of web pages, it defines the structure and the code for the definition of the content of a web page, such as text, images and others. In 1991 Berners-Lee defined 18 elements that include the initial design, currently 13 of these initial elements are still used.
  • Hypertext Transfer ProtocolHTTP ): is the protocol that allows the transfer of information through files, mainly HTML, on the World Wide Web.
  • The first web browser was called WorldWideWeb.
  • The first web server: Berners-Lee had set up the world’s first web server on a NeXT computer; the device had 2 GB disk, a gray scale monitor and a 256 MHz CPU.

Due to their contributions, Tim Berners-Lee, Larry Roberts, Vinton Cerf and Robert Kahn are considered as the fathers of the Internet. Without a doubt, these and other scientists who are part of the history of the Internet contributed to the birth of one of the most important creations for humanity.

Important facts in the history of the Internet

  • 1962 : Research begins on ARPA to a global computer network.
  • 1969 : Connection of the first computers between 4 American universities.
  • 1971: Sending of the first email by Ray Tomlinson.
  • 1973 : United Kingdom and Norway join the Internet.
  • 1981 : Definition and development of the TCP/IP protocol and definition of the word Internet.
  • 1983: First site name server.
  • 1984: 1000 computers connected to the network are reached.
  • 1987: 10,000 computers connected to the network are reached.
  • 1989: 100,000 computers connected to the network are reached.
  • 1990: The first web browser is created.
  • 1991:  The World Wide Web is publicly announced.
  • 1992: One million computers connected to the network are reached.
  • 1993: The first search engine in history is created: Wandex.
  • 1994: The first commercial browser is born: Netscape.
  • 1995: eBay, one of the leading platforms for e-commerce, is founded.
  • 1996: 10 million computers connected to the network are reached.
  • 1998: Google is born, the most popular search engine on the Internet.
  • 2001: The dotcom bubble bursts.
  • 2004: Facebook is born and social networks begin to become popular.
  • 2005: The YouTube video platform is born.
  • 2005: Internet reaches 1 billion users.
  • 2007: The consumption of web content through mobile phones becomes popular.
  • 2009: Beginnings of instant messaging on mobile phones.
  • 2010: Registered domains exceed 200 million.
  • 2020: 59% of the world’s population has access to the Internet.

To be continued………

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